Social Change and Technology

Social change is a shift in the characteristics of culture and societies over time. There have been four social revolutions: 

The domestication of plants and animals, from which pastoral and horticultural societies arose;

The invention of the plow, leading to agricultural societies;

The industrial revolution, which produced industrial societies

The information revolution, resulting in postindustrial societies. 

Different sociologists have focused on different forces in order to explain the changes that took place in society at the time of the Industrial Revolution. 


Karl Marx identified capitalism as the basic reason behind the breakup of feudal societies. He focused his analysis on the means of production (factories, machinery, tools): those who owned them dictated the conditions under which workers would work and live.Max Weber saw religion as the core reason for the development of capitalism.  

As a result of the Reformation, Protestants no longer felt assured that they were saved by virtue of church membership and concluded that God would show visible favor to the elect.  This belief encouraged Protestants to work hard and be thrifty.

 An economic surplus resulted, stimulating industrialization. Modernization (the change from agriculture to industrial societies) produces sweeping changes in societies. 1. Modern societies are larger, more urbanized, and subject to faster change. They stress formal education and the future and are less religiously oriented. 

They have smaller families, lower rates of infant mortality, and higher life; they have higher incomes and more material possessions  With modernization, people’s view of the world, their fundamental beliefs about what life should be like, and their attitudes towards one another changed. 

 When technology from the industrialized world is brought into traditional nations, the impact on society is evident, as demonstrated by introduction of medicine. 4. The export of Western medicine to the least industrialized nations reduced death rates but did not affect high birth rates. 


5. Rapidly increasingly populations strain the resources of these nations, leading to widespread hunger and starvation, and the mass migration to cities and to the industrialized nations. A world system began to emerge in the 16th century; in the 18th and 19th centuries, capitalism and industrialization extended the economic and political ties among the world’s nations.


1. Dependency theory asserts that because nations that were not industrialized became dependent on those that had industrialized, they were unable to develop their own resources. 2. The world’s industrial giants (the U.S., Canada, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan – the G7) have decided how they will share the world’s markets; by regulating global economic and industrial policy they guarantee their own dominance, including continued access to cheap raw materials from the less industrialized nations.

 The recent resurgence of ethnic conflicts threatens the global map drawn by the G7.  Social movements are also powerful forces for social change. To examine the most important issues in an industrialized society, one must look at the social movements which point to the areas that contain the greatest pressure for change.

Understanding Operators In C++ Language

Operators

Once introduced to variables and constants, we can begin to operate with them by using operators. What follows is a complete list of operators. At this point, it is likely not necessary to know all of them, but they are all listed here to also serve as reference.


Assignment operator (=)

 
The assignment operator assigns a value to a variable.

Consider also that we are only assigning the value of y to x at the moment of the assignment operation. Therefore, if ychanges at a later moment, it will not affect the new value taken by x.



Arithmetic operators ( +, -, *, /, % )


The five arithmetical operations supported by C++ are: 


operator    description


+                addition
–               subtraction
*             multiplication
/                 division
%               modulo

Operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division correspond literally to their respective mathematical operators. The last one, modulo operator, represented by a percentage sign (%), gives the remainder of a division of two values.


Compound assignment (+=, -=, *=, /=, %=, >>=, <<=, &=, ^=, |=)


Compound assignment operators modify the current value of a variable by performing an operation on it. They are equivalent to assigning the result of an operation to the first operand


Increment and decrement (++, –)


Some expression can be shortened even more: the increase operator (++) and the decrease operator (–) increase or reduce by one the value stored in a variable. They are equivalent to +=1 and to -=1, respectively. 


In the early C compilers, the three previous expressions may have produced different executable code depending on which one was used. Nowadays, this type of code optimization is generally performed automatically by the compiler, thus the three expressions should produce exactly the same executable code.

A peculiarity of this operator is that it can be used both as a prefix and as a suffix. That means that it can be written either before the variable name (++x) or after it (x++). Although in simple expressions like x++ or ++x, both have exactly the same meaning; in other expressions in which the result of the increment or decrement operation is evaluated, they may have an important difference in their meaning: In the case that the increase operator is used as a prefix (++x) of the value, the expression evaluates to the final value of x, once it is already increased. On the other hand, in case that it is used as a suffix (x++), the value is also increased, but the expression evaluates to the value that x had before being increased. 


Conditional ternary operator ( ? )


The conditional operator evaluates an expression, returning one value if that expression evaluates to true, and a different one if the expression evaluates as false. Its syntax is:

condition ? result1 : result2

If condition is true, the entire expression evaluates to result1, and otherwise to result2.


Comma operator ( , )


The comma operator (,) is used to separate two or more expressions that are included where only one expression is expected. When the set of expressions has to be evaluated for a value, only the right-most expression is considered.


Explicit type casting operator


Type casting operators allow to convert a value of a given type to another type. There are several ways to do this in C++. The simplest one, which has been inherited from the C language, is to precede the expression to be converted by the new type enclosed between parentheses (()):

Understanding C++ BASICS With Sample Program | Including Exercises |

Understanding C++ BASICS With Sample Program | Including

Exercises  | Today I am going to tell you some basics about C++ language.It’s computer language used to create programs.It’s an updated version of C Language.It is used to create Programs, Windows Console Applications etc.It’s a basic language which programmers learn in starting of their career.

 Statement
• instruction of a C++ program • e.g. cout  → displays a result on monitor cout << “Welcome to C++” Output on monitor:

Welcome to C++
Function
performs some special task in a program


Libraries 

• Special programs, which are part of compiler 

• Support statements & functions in a program 

• 2 important libraries, required when enter data from keyboard or get result on monitor: – iostream (input output stream) – conio.h (console input output header) [header is an extension to header file, given in some libraries]
Preprocessor Directive
• Instructions to a compiler to add a library in a program • #include • e.g.  #include <iostream>


Reserving an area in RAM for a C++ Program

using namespace std • Reserves an area with the name std (standard) • Given between ‘libraries’ and ‘void (main)’
Program & Output Windows Program Window When program is entered, saved, compiled & run, we are in Program Window, where we can see our program list Output Window To check results, we have to go from Program Window to Output Window by using a function: getch()


Structure of a C++Program 

#include …… : 

: using namespace std;

 void main()       

Start of program {                  

 C++ statements & functions;     

getch(); 

}      End of program


Program to display a message on monitor
#include<iostream> 

#include<conio.h> 

using namespace std; 

void main() 

cout << “Welcome to C++”;

 }

 getch(); 


Exercise
Write a C++ program to display your name on monitor
Display Result in one line
Example: 

cout  << “This result” ; 

cout  << “is in the” ; 

cout  << “same line” ; 

Output This result is in the same line
Display Result in next line


Example: 

cout << “This result” ; 

cout << “\n is in” ;

 cout << “\ndifferent lines” ; 

Output This result is in different lines here n is called new line character


Exercises
• Exercise 1 

Write a program which will display following result on monitor: 

Reg-no    Name    Class    University-name 

• Exercise 2 

Write the above program to display 

Regno, Name, … in separate lines

r.So without any further delay let’s get started.